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Author: Harihara Srinivasa Rao
Place: Magala, Hirehadagali, Bellary
The paper refers to the shlokas describing the mahajanas of Magala agrahara as well versed in yama, niyama, aasana, pranaayama, pratyahara, dhyana, dharana and samadhi and tries to interpret these terms in the context of Patanjali’s Yogasutra. The inscriptions discussed are: Inscription of 1116 AD found at Rangapura Narasimhaswamy temple belonging to the period of Chalukhya king Tribhuvanamalla and 1209 AD inscription of Hoysala king Veera Ballala II found at Magala.
Here is the translation of the article by the author.
Magala is a place in Bellary district , Huvina Hadagali Tq. Karnataka about 150km from Hospet Hubli Rly line. There is one Ugra Narashimha temple built mostly by Kalyana Chalukya (K.C.)Kings. It is on the right Bank of River Tunga Bhadra . There are seven inscriptions in this temple. The Ist one belongs to 1025A.D.) Queen of Tribhuvana Malla Deva of K.Chlkya on the request of the Mahajaanas of Magala and Bidirahally has donated 9 mattars(about 54 acres) of land for the maintenance and worship of Lord Ugra Narashimha. After this Maha Janas of Magala and Bidrahalli ( Left Bank of Tungabhadra)also donated the lands. While narrating this grants the inscription speaks about the qualities of Maha janas who were practicing Masters in yoga through which they have attained all the 64 vidyas !. They were practicing yogic principle in a very high level , according to Patnjalis’ Astaanga yoga. Because of this even though they are BRHAMINS they were well versed in WAR TECHNIQUES.Totally they were 200 Mahajanas including other cast people also(South Indian Inscriptions Vo.IX Part-I No.195 page No.190 ).
Swasti “Yama, Niyama, swaadhayaaya, dhyaana, dhaarana, yoga anushtaana, japa ,sammadhi,sheela shat karma kriyaa niratar; aneeka yajna abhivrataavagaahana pavitree kruta shreervar , veeda veedaanga , upaanga, aneeka shaastraa, ashtaadasha dharma samhitaru”
Though they have not mentioned the name of Patanjali, the rules 29 of chapter 2 quotes the same words except the only word Aasana without which it is not possible to sit properly and do other practices. But it mentions the name ASHTAANGA YOGA. This is again quoted in another Insc. No.329. of Vishnuvardhana Ballala II ( 1209 A.D) who was a Hoysala King. This means the same family people had continued practice and had all the qualities even after 200 years.
Now we shall see what are these technical words explained in Patanjali Yoga Sootra.
Yama (Sutra=Rule No.30)
Ahimsa, Satya, Astheeya, Brahmacharya, Aparigrahaayaa YAMAAH ( Ptys No.30)
Not harming animals/human beings, telling truth with inner consciousness, stealing others things, self discipline of five senses (eyes, touch, nose, ear and tongue), not accepting sensuous items by any one. Practicing these qualities you will get control over the mind
To have control over the desires without which there is no use of practicing other rules
Actually it is directly connect with your 3 parameters of breathing. Rechaka: Leaving breath slowly,
Pooraka: Inhaling the air slowly Kumbhaka: to sustain the air inside for a while or as much time as you can. One has to practice it initially for 5 seconds after some time increase the timings for 20 seconds up to a maximum extent of 30 seconds. This systematic approach in breathing for 3d months regularly will have controlling effect on the nerves system says Dr.Ananda and Dr.Cheenaa. With this cells in the heart strengthen. Increase in resistance power of heart, with which blood circulation in the whole body occurs due to relaxation in nerves system. This leads to sugar and cholesterol, intern pilot to peace of mind.
This practice helps to increase resistance power of mind. Leave the mind to go in its own way, go on observing it. Infinite or countless thoughts appear on the inner eye. If you just leave them from the mind as they emerge, number of thoughts decrease slowly, mind comes to control by itself. It is possible only, if you practice regularly without any break of time.
Concentrating the mind both internal and externally on any one OBJECT for few seconds and increasing the time slowly and steadily, one will feel ,flow of inner energy elevated, as the spring of enthusiasm . This state of mind is called DHYAANA. Practicing this will have peace of mind. The ratio of Plasma cortical, urinary corticoid and nitrogen will slowly decrease; result in renewal of energy in the body. Acetyl Colin in blood will increase by Dhyana.
Dhaarana or Concentration
Concentrating mind on only one object is known as Dhaarana. Take any one object, have all the knowledge about it and understand all its properties. Go on seeing the object; slowly drop all its attraction one by one. One will have lot of concentration developed by himself, because of knowledge the limitation as well as the optimum either good or bad things about object chosen.
Dropping all the experience of the external knowledge, concentrating and observing the inner mind and its state for a longer period is known as SAMAADHI STHITHI. This can be attained only, stage by stage by adopting the other seven rules. One can create wonders when this statuesque of mind is reached. Egoism vanishes; infinite energy to do or face and overcome any kind of difficulty, at any circumstance with the higher goal, compared to normal can be systematically reached. Thus those who practice this kind of yoga will be benefited with many folds of energy.
There are names in these inscriptions of Magala such as Heggade Lingayya, Pulimmayya Nayaka who was the Chief security head ( Maneya Veggade)for the Royal Home of King Ballala II. Harihara and Madhava were the( Danda Nayaka) Chief tons or the Army Heads of Holysala Kings. These names are still continued in the Magalam Family memebers till to-day. Sri Bhistapaaya Maha Purusha family is continuing in the village of Vittalapur. He was a saint who had the knowledge of many disciplines such as Rasa Shaastra ( Indian Alchmey), Jyothishya Sastra , Engineering etc., he had renovated most of the temples on the bank of River Tunga Bhadra. Built retaining walls with big boulders and special circular as well as horizontal designs at Bidraballi (mentioned above), Galaganatha etc.,. In one of the books written by Apte Master who says that the front or Dwara Gopuram of Hampi Virupaksha Temple was built/renovated by Bhistappayya Maha Purush , he has sacrificed his own wife for this structure. The famous lawyer of Dharwar, Sri Alur Venkata Rao acknowledges this point in his foreword to the book Hampeya Dwara Gopura Nirmaatrhru Bhishtappayyanavara Charitra. Alur Vekata Rao , because had played the most important role in uniting the North Karnataka to the then Mysore State in 1956 is known as Kannadada Kanwa. It is told till recently, the remains of Bhitappaya’s house was there in the premises of Magala Naarashimha Temple. In the records of preserved in his house at Vittalapur, Bhistappayya Mahapurusha the seal of “Sree Virupaksha “ (Emblem of Vijayanagara Kings) is there. Research is still on, to find out the exact date or construction properties to prove that the fact of Maha Gopura at Hampi(then Vijayanagar Capital) was built up by Bhishtappayya of Vittalapur.
There is a Shivalinga weighing about 40kgs in which Mercury is molded. It is now called as Maha Lingeswara at Vittalaphura Temple. According to Dr.Vasundhara Philliozat and by many alcheimsts and Ayurveda Scholaras ,it is only one in India having so much weight. It is also told that whenever the highest temperature reaches in that area a few drops of Mercury come out from the Shiva Linga. This author has seen the collected mercury in 1990.
Magala was a birth and work place of Sri Chndra Shekhara Saastri who was a direct student of Pandit Madana Mohna Maalaveeya, founder and first vice Chancellar of Banaras Hidinu University, Kashi. India’s first president Dr.Rajendra Prasad and Chendra Shekhara Sastri were both students of Malaviya. Sastry had written many Sansksrit as well as Kannda works that are highly appreciated and referred by many scholars. He lived 103 years at Magala.
The above evidence prove, that people of Magala narrated in inscriptions, irrespective of cast creed were great personalities who had practiced yoga.